NFSI2020 Lead-Up Events of Working Group I

International Conference on New Frontiers in Sanskrit and Indic Knowledge (4th Edition)


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Concluding Session


Lead-up Event 9

A talk on ‘The Relationship Between Satya and Dharma’

25 January 2021 | 7.00 PM IST


Lead-up Event 8

A Talk on: Question of Morality from a Vedantic Perspective

11 January 2021 | 7:30 PM IST

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Lead-up Event 7


A talk on Applied Hermeneutics of Pūrvamīmāṁsā for Jurisprudence (in Hindi)

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Lead-up Event 6

A talk on: Utkal School of Dharmashastra

17 December 2020 | 3:00 pm IST


Lead-up Event 5

A Review of the Works of Dr. Patrick Olivelle

11 December 2020 | 7.30 PM IST


Lead-up Event 4

A talk on: Valid Perceptual Cognition According to Tarka Śāstram for Jurisprudence

4 December 2020 | 7:30 pm IST

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Valid Perceptual Cognition According to Tarka Śāstram for Jurisprudence

The Indian knowledge systems are of many kinds and the Darśanas1 are one of them. The Darśanas are the guiding philosophies for understanding the world and for utilising our life to its best. Each Darśana was envisioned by a different Ṛṣi, such as Nyāya by Gōtama, Vaiśēṣika by Kaṇāda and so on.

Darśanas are of two types. One which believes in the authority of the Vedas, known as Āstika Darśana, and the other which does not believe in the authority of the Vedas, known as Nāstika Darśana.

There are six Āstika Darśanas, namely, Nyāya, Vaiśēṣika, Yōga, Sāṃkhya, Mīmāṃsā and Vēdānta. In the beginning Nyāya and Vaiśēṣika systems were distinct. There were many differences of opinion between them like ‘word’ is a different means of knowledge for Nayyāyikās2 and for Vaiśēṣikās3. Over time there was a give and take between these two schools and by the 10th century AD the emphasis of both the philosophies changed from Pramēya4 to Pramāṇa5. Hereafter, both these were combined and called ‘Navya Nyāya or Tarka śāstraṃ’.

The concepts elaborated in the Tarka śāstraṃ can also be useful for our modern-day lawyers in their day-to-day affairs of the court of law. According to my brief knowledge of jurisprudence, there are five areas where Indian knowledge systems can guide it. They are:

  • Drafting
  • Evidence
  • Interpretation
  • Argumentation
  • Judgment

In the evidence section, the concept of pramāṇās dealing with Tarka Śāstraṃ are of great help.

1. Dṛśyatē anēna=Seen through this

2. One who follows the principles of Nyāya

3. One who follows the principles of Vaiśēṣika

4. Elements of the universe

5. Means of Knowledge

Lead-up Event 3: Talk on Types of Katha according to Nyaya Sutras

18 November 2020 | 7:30 P.M IST

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Lead-up Event 2: Online Vakyartha Sabha on लोकतः अर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमः क्रियते

31 October 2020 | 7.30 pm IST

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Prof. B. V. Venkataramana

Professor and Controller of Examination, Karnataka Sanskrit University, Bengaluru


Prof. Ganeshwar Nath Jha

Head, Department of Vyakarana, Central Sanskrit University, Agartala

About the topic:

लोकतः अर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमः क्रियते is the second vārtika of vyākaraṇa śastra written by kātyāyana. In the Mahābhāṣyam, after dealing with the purpose of Vyākaraṇa Śāstra, Maharṣi Pataṅjali questions whether Pāṇini himself created all the words (śabda) or whether he is only the indicator of all the existing words? This question is raised to bring out the first vārtikam of Kātyāyana into discussion i.e. ‘siddhe śabdārthasambandhe’ which says that words (śabda), meaning (artha) and their relations (sambandha) are always existing (siddha), they are not created. They existed even before Pāṇini revealed his vyākaraṇa. Hence, Pāṇini is not the creator of the words. This discussion leads to another important question: How come we know that all these (śabda, artha and sambandha) are always existing? Maharṣi Pataṅjali, as a reply to this, says, ‘Lokataḥ’ which means that the eternity of all these three is understood through worldly behaviour only. All the words are already in use in this world. People only think of objects and make use of words denoting them. No one creates words such as a pot gets created to be used. This world itself is the authority for the use of words.

All these discussions question the formation of Vyākaraṇa Śāstra, as in ‘what is the role of Vyākaraṇa Śāstra if all the words already existed and they are being used in this world to denote relative meanings? To answer this question Maharṣi Pataṅjali brings out another vārtika of Kātyayana i.e. ‘लोकतः अर्थप्रयुक्ते शब्दप्रयोगे शास्त्रेण धर्मनियमः क्रियते’. This vārtika expresses that the role of the Vyākaraṇa Śāstra is to make injunctions for the sake of Dharma. The śāstra only implies rules (Niyama) which result in Dharma. By making rules, vyākaraṇa restricts the use of incorrect words.

In this sabha, we are trying to extract the meaning of this vārtika according to the Mahabhāṣya by focussing on the word dharma and niyama and also by including the perspectives from dharmaśāstra, nyāyaśāstra and mīmāṁsāśāstra.

We also wish to explore how far the discussion relating to the meaning of the vārtika can help present jurisprudential discourses.

Lead-Up Event-1: A talk on ‘Ramarajya as the Desired Future for the Entire World: Review of Sw. Karpatraji’s Life and Works’

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Mr. G. V. Pranav Kumar Vasishta, Independent Researcher, Poornapamati

About the Topic

Rāma-Rājya as the Desired Future for the Entire World: Notes from Svāmī Karapātrī-ji’s Life and Works

रामो विग्रहवान् धर्मः साधुः सत्य पराक्रमः।
राजा सर्वस्य लोकस्य देवानां मघवानिव॥

न राम सदृशो राजा पृथिव्यां नीतिमानभूत्।

धर्मो विश्वस्य जगतः प्रतिष्ठा।
वेदोऽखिलो धर्म मूलम्।
तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते।
श्रुतेरिवार्थं स्मृतिरन्वगच्छत्।
ज्ञानजन्या भवेदिच्छा इच्छाजन्या भवेत् कृतिः।

The memory, the lore of Rāma-Rājya is one of the most enduring features of the samskṛti of India, that is Bharat. The call for striving towards ‘Rāma-Rājya’ followed by a reflection on what it entails, found an echo in the hearts of all those who sought sva-tantra-tā that went beyond the mere call for political independence from the British Empire. Each of the proposed conceptions of ‘Rāma-Rājya’, irrespective of their completeness, or even the most fundamental criticism of the very idea thereof—each one of them staked a claim to represent the most desired future for the entire world. Among these conceptions, there is only one substantive conception that made a strong case for realising ‘ Rāma-Rājya’ in the contemporary world while at the same time remaining true to the aitihāsika Rāma. Where can we learn about this concept? It is from the life and works of  ‘Dharma Samrāṭ’ Svāmī Karapātrī-ji. The fruit of such a learning exercise is the attainment of ‘Svarāj in Ideas’. Only those who have such tāttvika sva-tantra-tā can be capable of building a global future founded on Indian indigenous perspectives.

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